CCNA TUTORIAL FOR BEGINNERS PDF

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A free CCNA tutorial site that closely follows the Cisco CCNA curriculum. The first couple of chapters describe some basic networking terms and devices. Download free Basic Networking Tutorial course material and training (PDF media transmissions without wifi son, routing, addressing, CISCO CCNA and. CCNA Cisco Certified Network Associate CCNA (v): Exam Answer Part 1 Basics of Computer Networking Thomas G. Robertazzi Stony Brook.


Ccna Tutorial For Beginners Pdf

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This study guide is intended to provide those pursuing the CCNA . In a basic peer-to-peer architecture, all hosts on the network can both. Introducing Basic. Network Concepts. “In the beginning, there were no networks. Life was bad.” —MIKE MEYERS. In this chapter, you will learn how to. CCNA is a popular certification course among computer network engineers. It is estimated that more than 1 million CCNA certificates have.

Brouter act as a filter that enables some data into the local network and redirects unknown data to the other network. It is a device that converts the computer-generated digital signals of a computer into analog signals, traveling via phone lines. It determines how a computer should be connected to the Internet and how data should be transmitted between them. It is responsible for breaking data down into small packets before they can be sent on the network.

Also, for assembling the packets again when they arrive. IP Internet Protocol: It is responsible for addressing, sending and receiving the data packets over the internet. When we type something in an address bar, our request will be processed to the server.

The server will respond back to us with the request. The messages are sent and received in small packages. This layer includes two activities Transmitting data to the Network Interface layers Routing the data to the correct destinations So how this happen?

Internet layer packs data into data packets referred as IP datagrams. It consists of source and destination IP address. Beside this, IP datagram header field consists of information like version, header length, type of service, datagram length, time to live, and so on.

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The datagram are transported through network using these protocols. They each resemble some function like. It determines how to route message on the network. Likewise, you will have ICMP protocol.

CCNA Certification Tutorial: Introduction & Basics

It is responsible for diagnostic functions and reporting errors due to the unsuccessful delivery of IP packets. The ARP or Address Resolution Protocol is responsible for the resolution of the Internet layer address to the Network Interface layer address such as a hardware address. The image below shows the format of an IP address. It is responsible for providing the Application layer with session and datagram communication services.

TCP is responsible for the sequencing, and acknowledgment of a packet sent. It also does the recovery of packet lost during transmission. Packet delivery through TCP is more safe and guaranteed. UDP is used when the amount of data to be transferred is small. It does not guarantee packet delivery. Network Segmentation Network segmentation implicates splitting the network into smaller networks.

It helps to split the traffic loads and improve the speed of the Internet. Network Segmentation can be achieved by following ways, By implementing DMZ demilitarised zones and gateways between networks or system with different security requirements.

By implementing DSD evaluated cross-domain solutions where necessary Why Network Segmentation is important Network Segmentation is important for following reasons, Improve Security - To protect against malicious cyber attacks that can compromise your network usability. To detect and respond to an unknown intrusion in the network Isolate network problem - Provide a quick way to isolate a compromised device from the rest of your network in case of intrusion.

VLAN Segmentation: VLANs enables an administrator to segment networks. Segmentation is done based on the factors such as project team, function or application, irrespective of the physical location of the user or device.

A group of devices connected in a VLAN act as if they are on their own independent network, even if they share a common infrastructure with other VLANs. The popular device used for segmenting are a switch, router, bridge, etc. Subnetting Subnets are more concerned about IP addresses. Subnetting is primarily a hardware-based, unlike VLAN, which is software based.

A subnet is a group of IP address. It can reach any address without using any routing device if they belong to the same subnet. Few things to consider while doing network segmentation Proper user authentication to access the secure network segment ACL or Access lists should be properly configured Access audit logs Anything that compromises the secure network segment should be checked- packets, devices, users, application, and protocols Keep watch on incoming and outgoing traffic Security policies based on user identity or application to ascertain who has access to what data, and not based on ports, IP addresses, and protocols Do not allow the exit of cardholder data to another network segment outside of PCI DSS scope.

Packet Delivery Process So far we have seen different protocols, segmentation, various communication layers, etc.

Now we are going to see how the packet is delivered across the network. The process of delivering data from one host to another depends on whether or not the sending and receiving hosts are in the same domain. A packet can be delivered in two ways, A packet destined for a remote system on a different network A packet destined for a system on the same local network If the receiving and sending devices are connected to the same broadcast domain, data can be exchanged using a switch and MAC addresses.

But if the sending and receiving devices are connected to a different broadcast domain, then the use of IP addresses and the router is required. Suppose host A wants to send a packet to host B. Since at layer 2 packets are sent with MAC address as the source and destination addresses.

Intrasegment packet routing If a packet is destined for a system on the same local network, which means if the destination node are on the same network segment of the sending node.

The sending node addresses the packet in the following way. The node number of the destination node is placed in the MAC header destination address field. The node number of the sending node is placed in the MAC header source address field The full IPX address of the destination node is placed in the IPX header destination address fields. Layer 3 Packet delivery To deliver an IP packet across a routed network, it requires several steps.

For instance, if host A wants to send a packet to host B it will send the packet in this ways Host A sends a packet to its "default gateway" default gateway router. To send a packet to the router, host A requires to know the Mac address of the router For that Host A sends an ARP request asking for the Mac address of the Router This packet is then broadcast on the local network. It responds back with the Mac address of the default router to Host A.

It can send an IP packet with a destination address of Host B. Now, default router will send a packet to Host B Intersegment packet routing In the case where two nodes residing on different network segments, packet routing will take place in the following ways. In the first packet, in the MAC header place the destination number "20" from the router and its own source field "01".

While in the second packet, in the MAC header place the destination number as "02" and source as "21" from the router. Wireless Local Area Networks Wireless technology was first introduced in the 90's. It is used to connect devices to a LAN.

Technically it is referred as Any components that connect to a WLAN is considered as a station and falls into one of two categories. Access point AP: AP transmit and receive radio frequency signals with devices able to receive transmitted signals. Usually, these devices are routers. It may comprise a variety of devices like workstations, laptops, IP phones, desktop computers, etc.

WLAN requires additional information in the Layer 2 header of the frame.

Radio frequencies are radiated into the air by antennas that create radio waves. The following factor can influence radio frequency transmission, Absorption - when radio waves bounce off the objects Reflection - when radio waves strike an uneven surface Scattering - when radio waves absorbed by objects WLAN Standards To establish WLAN standards and certifications, several organizations have stepped forward.

Organization has set regulatory agencies to control the use of RF bands. Approval is taken from all the regulatory bodies of WLAN services before any new transmissions, modulations and frequencies are used or implemented.

A license is not needed to operate wireless equipment on the unlicensed frequency bands. For instance, a 2. WiFi protocols and The IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers Standard comprises a family of networking standards that cover the physical layer specifications of technologies from Ethernet to wireless.

The IEEE For instance, It is used for transmission over short distances at up to Mbps in the 2. Segmentation is done based on the factors such as project team, function or application, irrespective of the physical location of the user or device. A group of devices connected in a VLAN act as if they are on their own independent network, even if they share a common infrastructure with other VLANs. The popular device used for segmenting are a switch, router, bridge, etc.

Subnetting Subnets are more concerned about IP addresses.

Subnetting is primarily a hardware-based, unlike VLAN, which is software based. A subnet is a group of IP address. It can reach any address without using any routing device if they belong to the same subnet.

CCNA 1: Networking Basics

Few things to consider while doing network segmentation Proper user authentication to access the secure network segment ACL or Access lists should be properly configured Access audit logs Anything that compromises the secure network segment should be checked- packets, devices, users, application, and protocols Keep watch on incoming and outgoing traffic Security policies based on user identity or application to ascertain who has access to what data, and not based on ports, IP addresses, and protocols Do not allow the exit of cardholder data to another network segment outside of PCI DSS scope.

Packet Delivery Process So far we have seen different protocols, segmentation, various communication layers, etc. Now we are going to see how the packet is delivered across the network. The process of delivering data from one host to another depends on whether or not the sending and receiving hosts are in the same domain.

A packet can be delivered in two ways, A packet destined for a remote system on a different network A packet destined for a system on the same local network If the receiving and sending devices are connected to the same broadcast domain, data can be exchanged using a switch and MAC addresses.

But if the sending and receiving devices are connected to a different broadcast domain, then the use of IP addresses and the router is required. Suppose host A wants to send a packet to host B.

Since at layer 2 packets are sent with MAC address as the source and destination addresses. Intrasegment packet routing If a packet is destined for a system on the same local network, which means if the destination node are on the same network segment of the sending node. The sending node addresses the packet in the following way.

The node number of the destination node is placed in the MAC header destination address field. The node number of the sending node is placed in the MAC header source address field The full IPX address of the destination node is placed in the IPX header destination address fields.

Layer 3 Packet delivery To deliver an IP packet across a routed network, it requires several steps. For instance, if host A wants to send a packet to host B it will send the packet in this ways Host A sends a packet to its "default gateway" default gateway router. To send a packet to the router, host A requires to know the Mac address of the router For that Host A sends an ARP request asking for the Mac address of the Router This packet is then broadcast on the local network.

It responds back with the Mac address of the default router to Host A. It can send an IP packet with a destination address of Host B. Now, default router will send a packet to Host B Intersegment packet routing In the case where two nodes residing on different network segments, packet routing will take place in the following ways. In the first packet, in the MAC header place the destination number "20" from the router and its own source field "01".

While in the second packet, in the MAC header place the destination number as "02" and source as "21" from the router. Wireless Local Area Networks Wireless technology was first introduced in the 90's. It is used to connect devices to a LAN. Technically it is referred as Any components that connect to a WLAN is considered as a station and falls into one of two categories.

Access point AP : AP transmit and receive radio frequency signals with devices able to receive transmitted signals.

But also many other tutorials are accessible just as easily! Computer PDF guide you and allow you to save on your studies. You should come see our Network documents. You will find your happiness without trouble!

We will do everything to help you! And you dear surfers what you need? Contents What is a computer Network? Beginners Created: January 1, Size:Suppose host A wants to send a packet to host B. You will rarely get Practical Networking Knowledge in college, colleges does not have sufficient infrastructure to teach you networking practically. It does not guarantee packet delivery.

The values for the bits ascends from left to right. It is becoming the more common way to connect network as they are simply faster and more intelligent than bridges.