possibility. In Physics of the Impossible, the renowned physicist Michio Kaku explores to what extent the technologies and devices of science fiction that are. Welcome to the English Conversation Class sponsored by the Church of Jesus Christ We teach Beginning English Conversat. Pdf download Physics of the Impossible: A Scientific Exploration Into the World of Phasers, Force Fields, Teleportation, and Time Travel Ebook.
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Time Travel Michio Kaku Pdf, Read Online Physics Of The Impossible A Scientific. Exploration Into World Phasers Force Fields Teleportation And Time Travel. p [read online] physics of the impossible a scientific exploration into the world of phasers force fields teleportation and time travel. book file pdf. Editorial Reviews. From Publishers Weekly. In this latest effort to popularize the sciences, City University of New York professor and media star Kaku.
Even a tiny bit of heft would add up because a staggering number of neutrinos are left over from the Big Bang.
Question 5 Where do ultrahigh-energy particles come from? The most energetic particles that strike us from space, which include neutrinos as well as gamma-ray photons and various other bits of subatomic shrapnel, are called cosmic rays.
They bombard Earth all the time; a few are zipping through you as you read this article.
Cosmic rays are sometimes so energetic, they must be born in cosmic accelerators fueled by cataclysms of staggering proportions. Scientists suspect some sources: the Big Bang itself, shock waves from supernovas collapsing into black holes, and matter accelerated as it is sucked into massive black holes at the centers of galaxies.
Knowing where these particles originate and how they attain such colossal energies will help us understand how these violent objects operate. Question 6 Is a new theory of light and matter needed to explain what happens at very high energies and temperatures? All of that violence cited in question 5 leaves a visible trail of radiation, especially in the form of gamma rays—the extremely energetic cousins of ordinary light. Astronomers have known for three decades that brilliant flashes of these rays, called gamma-ray bursts, arrive daily from random directions in the sky.
Recently astronomers have pinned down the location of the bursts and tentatively identified them as massive supernova explosions and neutron stars colliding both with themselves and black holes. But even now nobody knows much about what goes on when so much energy is flying around.
Physics of the impossible pdf
Matter grows so hot that it interacts with radiation in unfamiliar ways, and photons of radiation can crash into each other and create new matter. The distinction between matter and energy grows blurry. Throw in the added factor of magnetism, and physicists can make only rough guesses about what happens in these hellish settings. Perhaps current theories simply aren't adequate to explain them. But what happens at extreme temperatures? Does matter break down into a soup of subatomic particles—called a quark-gluon plasma—and then into energy?
Under extreme energetic conditions, matter undergoes a series of transitions, and atoms break down into their smallest constituent parts. Those parts are elementary particles called quarks and leptons, which as far as we know cannot be subdivided into smaller parts. Quarks are extremely sociable and are never observed in nature alone. Rather, they combine with other quarks to form protons and neutrons three quarks per proton that further combine with leptons such as electrons to form whole atoms.
The hydrogen atom, for example, is made up of an electron orbiting a single proton. Atoms, in turn, bind to other atoms to form molecules, such as H2O.
As temperatures increase, molecules transform from a solid such as ice, to a liquid such as water, to a gas such as steam. That's all predictable, known science, but at temperatures and densities billions of times greater than those on Earth, it's possible that the elementary parts of atoms may come completely unglued from one another, forming a plasma of quarks and the energy that binds quarks together. Physicists are trying to create this state of matter, a quark-gluon plasma, at a particle collider on Long Island.
At still higher temperatures and pressures, far beyond those scientists can create in a laboratory, the plasma may transmute into a new form of matter or energy. Such phase transitions may reveal new forces of nature. These new forces would be added to the three forces that are already known to regulate the behavior of quarks.
The so-called strong force is the primary agent that binds these particles together. The second atomic force, called the weak force, can transform one type of quark into another there are six different "flavors" of quark—up, down, charm, strange, top, and bottom.
The final atomic force, electromagnetism, binds electrically charged particles such as protons and electrons together. As its name implies, the strong force is by far the most muscular of the three, more than times as powerful as electromagnetism and 10, times stronger than the weak force.
Particle physicists suspect the three forces are different manifestations of a single energy field in much the same way that electricity and magnetism are different facets of an electromagnetic field.
In fact, physicists have already shown the underlying unity between electromagnetism and the weak force. Some unified field theories suggest that in the ultrahot primordial universe just after the Big Bang, the strong, weak, electromagnetic, and other forces were one, then unraveled as the cosmos expanded and cooled.
The possibility that a unification of forces occurred in the newborn universe is a prime reason particle physicists are taking such a keen interest in astronomy and why astronomers are turning to particle physics for clues about how these forces may have played a role in the birth of the universe.
For unification of forces to occur, there must be a new class of supermassive particles called gauge bosons. If they exist, they will allow quarks to change into other particles, causing the protons that lie at the heart of every atom to decay. And if physicists prove protons can decay, the finding will verify the existence of new forces. That raises the next question. But unified field theory predicts that time may eventually run out for protons, and they could decay into a spray of subparticles.
In case you're worried that the protons you're made of will disintegrate, transforming you into a puddle of elementary particles and free energy, don't sweat it.
Various observations and experiments show that protons must be stable for at least a billion trillion trillion years. However, many physicists believe that if the three atomic forces are really just different manifestations of a single unified field, the alchemical, supermassive bosons described above will materialize out of quarks every now and then, causing quarks, and the protons they compose, to degenerate.
At first glance, you'd be forgiven for thinking these physicists had experienced some sort of mental decay on the grounds that tiny quarks are unlikely to give birth to behemoth bosons weighing more than 10,,,,, times themselves.
But there's something called the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, which states that you can never know both the momentum and the position of a particle at the same time, and it indirectly allows for such an outrageous proposition. Therefore, it's possible for a massive boson to pop out of a quark making up a proton for a very short time and cause that proton to decay. Question 9 What is gravity? Next there's the matter of gravity, the odd force out when it comes to small particles and the energy that holds them together.
When Einstein improved on Newton's theory, he extended the concept of gravity by taking into account both extremely large gravitational fields and objects moving at velocities close to the speed of light. These extensions lead to the famous concepts of relativity and space-time. But Einstein's theories do not pay any attention to quantum mechanics, the realm of the extremely small, because gravitational forces are negligible at small scales, and discrete packets of gravity, unlike discrete packets of energy that hold atoms together, have never been experimentally observed.
Nonetheless, there are extreme conditions in nature in which gravity is compelled to get up close and personal with the small stuff. For example, near the heart of a black hole, where huge amounts of matter are squeezed into quantum spaces, gravitational forces become very powerful at tiny distances. The same must have been true in the dense primordial universe around the time of the Big Bang. Physicist Stephen Hawking identified a specific problem about black holes that requires a bridging of quantum mechanics and gravity before we can have a unified theory of anything.
According to Hawking, the assertion that nothing, even light, can escape from a black hole is not strictly true. Weak thermal energy does radiate from around black holes. Hawking theorized that this energy is born when particle-antiparticle pairs materialize from the vacuum in the vicinity of a black hole. Before the matter-antimatter particles can recombine and annihilate each other, one that may be slightly closer to the black hole will be sucked in, while the other that is slightly farther away escapes as heat.
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Physics of the Impossible
Book details Author: Michio Kaku Pages: Even in the s and s, Robert Goddard was scoffed at because it was believed that rockets would never be able to go into space. After a look at the development of today's technology, there is discussion as to how this advanced technology might become a reality. Chapters become somewhat more general towards the end of the book.
Some of our present day technologies are explained, and then extrapolated into futuristic applications. In the future, current technologies are still recognizable, but in a slightly altered form. For example, when discussing force fields of the future, Dr. Kaku writes about cutting edge laser technology , and newly developed plasma windows.
These are two of several technologies, which he sees as required for creating a force field. To create a force field these would be combined in a slightly altered form, such as more precise or more powerful. Furthermore, this discussion on force fields, as well as on the pantheon of highly advanced technologies, remains as true to the original concepts as in how the public generally imagines advanced technologies as possible, while remaining practical.
Kaku writes that since scientists understand the basic laws of physics today they are able to perceive or imagine a basic outline of future technologies that might work.
Kaku writes: "Physicists today understand the basic laws [of physics] extending over a staggering forty three orders of magnitude, from the interior of the proton out to the expanding universe.
Class I impossibilities[ edit ] Class I Impossibilities are "technologies that are impossible today, but that do not violate the known laws of physics. Force fields are vital for surviving any battle in the fictional world, but what exactly are force fields?
Physics of the impossible pdf
In science fiction force fields are very straight forward, but to make a repulsive force does appear impossible to make in a lab.In the first place, gravity is odd. Various observations and experiments show that protons must be stable for at least a billion trillion trillion years.
In the future, current technologies are still recognizable, but in a slightly altered form. We are entering a new Golden Age of space exploration. Facebook Google Twitter.